This report draws on the results of the 2011 Survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration, building on similar surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A total of 78 countries and territories volunteered to participate in the final round of surveys, which look at the state of play in 2010. The results indicate that, at the global level, only one out of the 13 targets established for 2010 – co-ordinated technical co-operation (a measure of the extent to which external funders co-ordinate their efforts to support countries’ capacity development objectives) – has been met, albeit by a narrow margin. Nonetheless, it is important to note that considerable progress has been made towards many of the remaining 12 targets. Globally, the survey results show much variation in the direction and pace of progress across external funders and partner countries since 2005. For the indicators where responsibility for change lies primarily with developing country governments, progress has been significant. For example, improvements have been made in the quality of tools and systems for planning and for financial and results management in a number of developing countries, often requiring deep reforms that go beyond aid management to broader aspects of government processes.
Governance and participation in health
Post-apartheid South Africa has witnessed the growth of social movements using on-the-ground and network-based modes of organisation that operate at the same time in local, national and global political environments. Networks across countries and grassroots mobilisation have allowed HIV/AIDS activists to use tactics confronting the state while supporting it to be more inclusive. Research from the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa explores the organisational practices and strategies of the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), a Cape Town-based social movement.
Friends of the Global Fund Africa popularly referred to as Friends Africa, a new pan-African advocacy organisation, chose Kigali as the venue for the inauguration of its board and first board meeting to chart the way forward in the fight against HIV/Aids, tuberculosis and malaria, the three diseases it claimed have been dealing a great blow to African continent. In Kigali , Friends Africa brought together some of the most committed, credible and influential voices of Africa as an indication of African leaderships' determination to lead the fight against the three diseases.
Following Zambia’s independence in 1964, several thousand non-Zambian Africans were identified and progressively removed from the Copperbelt mines as part of a state-driven policy of ‘Zambianisation’. Curiously, this process has been overlooked among the multitude of detailed studies on the mining industry and Zambianisation, which is usually regarded as being about the removal of the industrial colour bar on the mines. This article challenges that perspective by examining the position and fate of non-Zambian African mineworkers, beginning with patterns of labour recruitment established in the colonial period and through the situation following independence to the protracted economic decline in the 1980s. Two arguments are made by the author. First, Zambian nationalism and the creation of Zambian citizenship were accompanied on the Copperbelt by the identification and exclusion of non-Zambians, in contrast to a strand in the literature which stresses that exclusionary nationalism and xenophobia are relatively recent developments. Second, one of the central and consistent aims of Zambianisation was the removal of ‘alien’ Africans from the mining industry and their replacement with Zambian nationals as a key objective of the Zambian government, supported by the mineworkers’ union.
In this paper, researchers reviewed contemporary health sector frameworks which have focused on defining and developing indicators to assess governance in the health sector. Based on these, they propose a simplified approach to look at governance within a common health system framework which encourages stewards to take a systematic perspective when assessing governance. Although systems thinking is not unique to health, examples of its application within health systems has been limited. This approach is built largely on prior literature, but is original in that it is problem-driven and promotes an outward application taking into consideration the major health system building blocks at various levels in order to ensure a more complete assessment of a governance issue rather than a simple input-output approach. Based on an assessment of contemporary literature the authors propose a practical approach which we believe will facilitate a more comprehensive assessment of governance in health systems leading to the development of governance interventions to strengthen system performance and improve health as a basic human right.
In this interview, Lilian Celiberti of Feminist Dialogues reports that the World Social Forum (WSF), held in Dakar, Senegal from 6–11 February 2011, was an opportunity for a variety of activists and other civil society stakeholders to take part in discussions across varying perspectives and experiences. She highlights the strong and active participation of African women and youth, and the barriers of poor logistics and translation. She comments that the Declaration of the Women's Organisations was heavily focused on international conventions and UN-Resolutions, despite multiple tensions and conflicts amongst African groups and regions. She recognises that although interpersonal exchanges enable the deepening of debates, ‘colonisation continues in the divisions that we experience in different parts of the world’, and questions remain unanswered about how to develop collective thinking and solidarity in social movements.
Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. The existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. The study shows that culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilising participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease.
The author argues that the proposed Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) could establish a nuanced, layered, and multi-faceted regime of compliance and accountability to the right to health and strengthen accountability for the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). If legally binding, he argues that the FCGH could facilitate accountability through the courts and catalyze comprehensive domestic accountability regimes, requiring national strategies that include transparency, community and national accountability and participatory mechanisms, and an enabling environment for social empowerment. A “Right to Health Capacity Fund” could ensure resources for these strategies. Inclusive national processes could establish targets, benchmarks, and indicators consistent with FCGH guidance, with regular reporting to a treaty body, which could also hear individual cases. State reports could be required to include plans to overcome implementation gaps, subjecting the poorest performers to penalties and targeted capacity building measures. Regional special rapporteurs could facilitate compliance through regular country visits and respond to serious violations. And reaching beyond government compliance, from capacity building to the courts and contractual obligations, the author proposes that the FCGH could establish nationally enforceable right to health obligations on the private sector.
Fund the Fund have produced an advocacy kit aimed at civil society organisations (including nongovernmental, community-based, people living with the diseases, faith-based, and trade unions) to promote their advocacy for increased investment in the Global Fund.
This guide, produced by the EuropeAid Co-operation Office, offers guidance to European Community (EC) sector specialists on how to analyse and address governance in sector operations in a more systemic and comprehensive way, without being a compulsory blueprint. It aims to strengthen understanding of governance issues at sector level. It is divided into four chapters, which provide a broad definition of governance and overall EC policy on governance, experiences in dealing with governance at sector level reasons for strengthening efforts, a focus on an overall approach in addressing sector governance, and a methodology that can guide the process of analysing governance at sector level.