Resource allocation and health financing

africa: lack of will and resources for aids fight, says report

Unless there is a coordinated international response to the HIV/AIDS crisis there will be 45 million new infections by 2010, says a report in the latest Population Bulletin. The report says that even as HIV/AIDS continues its rapid spread most countries still lack the will, the commitment, and the resources to create effective HIV/AIDS programs. "It seems inconceivable that an infectious disease could so quickly reverse gains in health and development of the past five decades in less developed countries, but it is happening. It is even more astounding that the world has been so slow to react to the threat," the report states.

Taking aim – did UNGASS set an impossible goal?

One aim agreed at the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) was a 25 per cent reduction in HIV-1 prevalence among young people - by 2005 in the most affected countries and by 2010 globally. Is this achievable? What strategies and resources are needed?

The Global Plan to Stop Tuberculosis

The Stop TB Partnership has announced the publication of the Global Plan to Stop TB. The document describes the action and resources needed over the next five years to expand, adapt and improve directly-observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) - meeting the 2005 global targets to Stop TB, and setting the world on the road to the elimination of TB. Nine billion dollars is needed to fulfill the objectives of the Plan, and with a gap of nearly four billion dollars, much work is needed to mobilise more resources. The Global Plan has been prepared over the last two years by a team from Partners in Health and the Stop TB Partnership secretariat, with funding from the Soros Foundation and USAID. It incorporates contributions from over 150 writers around the world, and the backing of the WHO, the World Bank and other partners.

NGO participation in the Global Fund

This paper summarises a review undertaken by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance (the Alliance) in August and September 2002, assessing the participation of HIV non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in 6 country-level processes of the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria. These
processes include the Country Coordinated Mechanism (CCM), the Country Coordinated Proposal (CCP) and all other Global Fund related activities and consultations. The review was undertaken on the basis of anonymity, so all quotes and experiences are not attributed to specific individuals or countries. Recommendations are made based on these NGO experiences and from broader Alliance experience in providing technical and financial support to NGOs and community-based organisations in over 40 developing countries.

The Role of UNGASS Declaration of Commitment in the Fight Against HIV/AIDS in Africa:
Can We Sustain the Momentum?

Dr. Roland Msiska, Project Director for UNOPS executed UNDP Regional Project on HIV and Development in sub-Saharan Africa-Pretoria, South Africa.
This paper attempts to contribute to potential ways of ensuring that the momentum that has been generated by UNGASS and the creation of the GFATM for an effective well coordinated response to HIV, especially in Africa, is increased and sustained for at least 20 years. In order to achieve this, I am suggesting that we respond to the following questions: (a). What is the current situation of HIV/AIDS and what are the implications for achieving the global millennium goals? (b). What are the key areas of focus for sustaining the momentum of UNGASS implementation at global, regional and national levels? (c). How can we ensure that the GFATM facilitates the implementation of UNGASS at global, regional and national levels? (d). How can we ensure that wealthy nations facilitate countries in the sub-Saharan Africa to meet UNGASS commitments?

Further details: /newsletter/id/29360
Addressing shanty-town blues: guidelines for effective and sustainable sanitation

UN Habitat estimates that by 2025 over a third of all people in developing countries will be living in informal urban settlements. How can municipalities and governments do more to provide the most marginalised of the urban poor with adequate sanitation services? Can linkages and dialogue between policymakers and residents be fostered? A paper from the University of Southampton’s Institute of Irrigation and Development Studies (IIDS) reports the results of a study looking at policies, current service levels, attitudes, practices and expectations of residents and officials in 12 slums and shanty-towns in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Resultant guidelines suggest that unless agencies learn to be more responsive to the needs, demands and interests of poor communities, urban environments are likely to become ever more unsanitary.

Global mobilization for HIV prevention:
a blueprint for action

The working group report that by rapidly scaling up existing, successful prevention programmes, it will be possible to contain and ultimately reverse the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The paper reviews successful prevention strategies but points out that such programmes reach less than one in five of those who are vulnerable. A number of scientific studies that measure the effectiveness of programmes in preventing infection via all forms of transmission are reviewed. The report discusses the major obstacles to the upscaling of effective prevention methods, which it identifies as:
limited resources
lack of local capacity
lack of political commitment
the need for greater access to treatment
the need for new treatments and technologies
Recommendations are made to tackle these obstacles through building capacity, increasing resources and accelerating research into new prevention technologies.

Health care in poor countries
For 80 cents more

Robert Guest, The Economist
Last year, a group called the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH), which is backed by the World Health Organisation, called for rich nations to donate an extra $27 billion a year towards grappling with poor countries' health problems. It is an excellent idea, but there seems to be little chance that such a vast sum will actually be raised. All hope is not lost, however. A recent experiment in Tanzania has shown that a small health budget can go a long way, provided that the money is spent with care. The results are so striking that they are worth examining in detail.

Further details: /newsletter/id/29327
State of the art: AIDS and economics

The first section explores the role of economics in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Essays address use of resources, globalisation and HIV and economic evaluations of social interventions. Papers in section two consider the impacts of the disease, especially economic impacts, and consider methods of measuring those impacts. The final part of the document considers how economics can be used to respond to the pandemic, through assessment of resource allocations, economic evaluation and cost effectiveness as well as analysis of trials looking at prevention and treatment options.

Not just "women" - better gender analysis for health sector programme support

New approaches to healthcare funding often rely on outdated attitudes to gender. How can donors ensure that gender analysis is effective? Should they move beyond a narrow focus on women as a separate group? Researchers from the UK University of Manchester argue for a new approach to gender in healthcare funding. In many countries, donors are changing the way they finance health programmes. They are moving away from funding individual health projects and now encourage aid for government-managed health sector programmes. This new form of funding requires innovative forms of gender analysis and gender-sensitive interventions in the health sector.