This paper reports on a cross-sectional study conducted between May and August,2007 in Wakiso district. A total of 762 women (442 adolescents and 320 adult)were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The study calculated odds ratios with their 95% CI for antenatal and postnatal health care seeking, stigmatisation and violence experienced from parents comparing adolescents to adult first time mothers. It found that adolescent mothers showed poorer health care seeking behaviour for themselves and their children, and experienced increased community stigmatisation and violence, suggesting bigger challenges to the adolescent mothers in terms of social support. The authors propose that adolescent-friendly interventions such as pregnancy groups targeting to empower pregnant adolescents providing information on pregnancy, delivery and early childhood care need to be introduced and implemented.
Equitable health services
In this study, researchers assessed challenges and enablers for the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) in South Africa, in light of the approaching 2015 deadline for the Millennium Development Goals. Between September 2009 and September 2010 they requested national and provincial EPI managers in South Africa to identify key challenges facing EPI, and to propose appropriate solutions. Systematic reviews on the effectiveness of the proposed solutions were added. Challenges identified by EPI managers were linked to healthcare workers (insufficient knowledge of vaccines and immunisation), the public (anti-immunisation rumours and reluctance from parents), and health system (insufficient financial and human resources). Strategies proposed by managers to overcome the challenges include training, supervision, and audit and feedback; strengthening advocacy and social mobilisation; and sustainable EPI funding schemes. The findings from reliable systematic reviews indicate that interactive educational meetings, audits and feedback, and supportive supervision improve healthcare worker performance. The authors conclude that numerous promising strategies for improving EPI performance in South Africa were found but their implementation would need to be tailored to local circumstances and accompanied by high-quality monitoring and evaluation.
This paper illustrates unintended consequences of apparently rational allocations to curative and preventive services, using computer modelling. The model exhibits a “spend more get less” equilibrium in which higher revenue by the curative sector is used to influence government allocations away from prevention towards cure. Spending more on curing disease leads paradoxically to a higher overall disease burden of unprevented cases of other diseases. The authors suggest that this paradoxical behaviour of the model can be stopped by eliminating lobbying, eliminating fees for curative services and ring-fencing public health funding. The authors have created an artificial system as a laboratory to gain insights about the trade-offs between curative and preventive health allocations, and the effect of indicative policy interventions. The underlying dynamics of this artificial system resemble features of modern health systems where a self-perpetuating industry has grown up around disease-specific curative programs like HIV/AIDS or malaria. The model shows how the growth of curative care services can crowd both fiscal and policy space for the practice of population level prevention work, requiring dramatic interventions to overcome these trends.
National programmes for palliative care offer the most effective means of improving the quality of life for the greatest number of patients and families, even where resources are severely constrained. Palliative care, however, is low on the list of under-resourced governments' health care priorities. What part can advocacy play in raising its profile and promoting its value? According to the World Health Organisation, a public health approach to palliative care has three foundations: Governmental policy: adoption of a national palliative care strategy; Education: training of health care professionals and creating awareness among the general public; Drug availability: assuring the availability of drugs for pain control and symptom management.
Experts warn of impending crisis in health systems geared towards epidemics not chronic diseases such as cancer. Unless urgent attention is paid to decreasing the burden of cancer, there are going to be catastrophic results especially in Africa and parts of Asia, experts warned at a gathering in Cape Town in October 2007. Thirty countries in Africa and Asia had no access whatsoever to radiotherapy.
Parents and children will continue dying from malaria, until Europe rejects its colonialist past. But every year calls for action turn out to be mere bombast, as healthcare agencies refuse to go beyond bed nets and capacity building, radical greens continue to obstruct proven strategies, and disease and death rates climb. This year, however, things may be different. Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Greenpeace co-founder Patrick Moore, and hundreds of physicians, clergy and human rights advocates have joined in demanding that DDT be put back into the malaria control arsenal.
This interview was conducted with Dr John Seffrin, CEO of the American Cancer Society (ACS), who spoke about the cancer challenges facing Africa. By next year cancer is set to become the biggest killer in the world, killing more people than HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria combined. In Africa, people are dying of cancers that are curable in the developed world. Cancer is a growing problem in Africa but is given little attention as the continent is overwhelmed by many other problems. There are relatively low cancer prevalence rates in Africa, but a high growth of the cancer burden. This is argued to call for health promotion for people who don’t have cancer and palliative care for people who have late-stage disease.
As more Africans move from rural areas to the cities the risk of urban malaria increases. City health services need to focus on poor people who are most at risk from the disease. Malaria programmes should operate on a district by district basis as levels of malaria can vary dramatically throughout the city.
Health Minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang has called on the continent's health industry to improve access to affordable medicine. Access to healthcare is a constitutional right for all citizens of this continent.
With at least 67,000 refugees in southwest Uganda, the government and aid workers are still battling inadequate resources in what a United Nations (UN) official described as a ‘silent emergency’. ‘We can hardly meet international standards of indicators such as water, health and food,’ reported Nemia Temporal, deputy representative of the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) in Uganda. ‘For instance, we are delivering fifteen litres [of water] per person per day instead of the standard twenty litres.’ After years of protracted conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), with large influxes to neighbouring countries, the situation of the majority Congolese refugees is no longer considered that urgent by the wider aid community, Temporal said. At least 45,000 Congolese live in the 217sqkm Nakivale settlement in Isingiro District and Kyaka II in Kyegegwa District, where, thanks to the Ugandan government's refugee-friendly policy, they cultivate small pieces of land. Among the aid delivery gaps were the provision of shelter (plastic sheeting), water, health and sanitation, infrastructure and refugee protection. She urged a shift in humanitarian assistance so that relief aid goes hand-in-hand with livelihood support ‘right from day one'.